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DSM-5® Diagnostic Criteria

ADHD is characterized as a persistent pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity/impulsivity that interferes with functioning or development.1

Among other criteria that must be met for a diagnosis of ADHD, several symptoms (inattentive or hyperactive/impulsive) must be present in 2 or more settings (eg, at home, school, or work; with friends or relatives; in other activities).1

ADHD Symptoms of Inattention1

  • Makes careless mistakes/lacks attention to detail
  • Difficulty sustaining attention
  • Does not seem to listen when spoken to directly
  • Fails to follow through on tasks and instructions
  • Exhibits poor organization
  • Avoids/dislikes tasks requiring sustained mental effort
  • Loses things necessary for tasks/activities
  • Easily distracted (including unrelated thoughts)
  • Is forgetful in daily activities

 

ADHD Symptoms of Hyperactivity/Impulsivity1

  • Fidgets with or taps hands or feet, squirms in seat
  • Leaves seat in situations when remaining seated is expected
  • Experiences feelings of restlessness
  • Has difficulty engaging in quiet, leisurely activities
  • Is "on-the-go" or acts as if "driven by a motor"
  • Talks excessively
  • Blurts out answers
  • Has difficulty waiting their turn
  • Interrupts or intrudes on others

Symptoms must occur often.

Note: These are not the complete diagnostic criteria for ADHD. Please see https://qandadhd.com/resourcesanddiagnosis/ diagnosticcriteria for the full diagnostic criteria. All criteria must be met for a diagnosis of ADHD, which should be based on a complete history and evaluation of the patient.1

1. American Psychiatric Association. Attention-deficit and disruptive behavior disorders. In: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition (DSM-5®). Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Association; 2013.
DSM-5 is a registered trademark of the American Psychiatric Association.

Question 1
1

Colleagues' Response

NEARLY HALF OF PATIENTS DON’T BRING UP THEIR SYMPTOMS. IT’S UP TO US TO ASK.

In fact, 48% of ADHD patients may not share their ADHD symptoms with a doctor.*1

view references

References

*Proportion estimated from a cumulative lifetime probability curve in a weighted number of respondents with a lifetime history of ADHD (n=253) using collected data from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication of 3,199 adults aged 18 to 44 years conducted from 2000 to 2003. These individuals met the criteria for ADHD according to the World Mental Health-Composite Internal Diagnostic Interview.

  1. Wang PS, Berglund P, Olfson M, et al. Failure and delay in initial treatment contact after first onset of mental disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2005;62(6):603-613. doi: 10.1001/archpsyc.62.6.603.
2

Colleagues' Response

PATIENTS WITH ADHD EXPERIENCE SYMPTOMS OUTSIDE OF THE WORKPLACE.

Adults may be challenged by activities and tasks that happen before and after their workday, including those symptoms experienced at home and in social settings.1-3

view references

References

  1. Adler LA, Chua HC. Management of ADHD in adults. J Clin Psychiatry. 2002;63(Suppl 12):29-35.
  2. American Psychiatric Association. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. In: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Association; 2013:59-65.
  3. Ginsberg Y, Quintero J, Anand E, et al. Underdiagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in adult patients: a review of the literature. Prim Care Companion CNS Disord. 2014;16(3).
3

Colleagues' Response

ADULT ADHD SYMPTOMS EXTEND BEYOND WORK.

Symptoms of inattention such as often being forgetful in daily activities and difficulty with organization can make it challenging to accomplish daily tasks like remembering to pay bills on time and keeping appointments.1-3

view references

References

  1. Goodman DW, Lasser RA, Babcock T, et al. Managing ADHD across the lifespan in the primary care setting. Postgrad Med. 2011;123(5):14-26. doi: 10.3810/pgm.2011.09.2456.
  2. Brod M, Perwein A, Adler L, et al. Conceptualization and assessment of quality of life for adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Prim Psychiatry. 2005;12(6):58-64.
  3. American Psychiatric Association. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. In: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Association; 2013:59-65.
4

Colleagues' Response

ADHD SYMPTOMS CAN AFFECT LIFE AT HOME.

Adults with ADHD may have a difficult time keeping track of items used for daily activities, such as keys, wallets, glasses or mobile phones.1

view references

References

  1. American Psychiatric Association. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. In: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Association; 2013:59-65.
7

Colleagues' Response

ADHD SYMPTOMS CAN CAUSE IMPAIRMENT AT WORK.

Inattentive symptoms of adult ADHD such as often being forgetful in daily activities and difficulty with organization can often impact work productivity. It's important not only to talk about symptoms patients experience at work, but also how they feel symptoms may be affecting other areas of their life.1,2

view references

References

  1. American Psychiatric Association. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. In: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Association; 2013:59-65.
  2. Ginsberg Y, Quintero J, Anand E, et al. Underdiagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in adult patients: a review of the literature. Prim Care Companion CNS Disord. 2014;16(3). doi: 10.4088/PCC.13r01600.
8

Colleagues' Response

WE MAY NOT BE SEEING HOW PATIENTS EXPERIENCE ADHD IN MULTIPLE SETTINGS.

Adults with ADHD may develop coping mechanisms, but they may spend excessive amounts of energy to manage symptoms on their own.1,2

view references

References

  1. Ginsberg Y, Quintero J, Anand E, et al. Underdiagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in adult patients: a review of the literature. Prim Care Companion CNS Disord. 2014;16(3).
  2. Asherson P, Akehurst R, Kooij JJS, et al. Under diagnosis of adult ADHD: cultural influences and societal burden. J Atten Disord. 2012;16(5 Suppl):20S-38S.
9

Colleagues' Response

AN INDIVIDUAL'S ADHD SYMPTOMS MAY MANIFEST DIFFERENTLY DEPENDING ON THE CONTEXT OF A GIVEN SETTING.

To meet the diagnostic criteria for ADHD, several symptoms of ADHD (inattentive or hyperactive/impulsive) must be present in two or more settings (e.g., at home, at work, in social settings). Research shows each patient's treatment plan should be individualized based on your assessment of each patient's needs and desires.1-5

view references

References

  1. Ginsberg Y, Quintero J, Anand E, et al. Underdiagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in adult patients: a review of the literature. Prim Care Companion CNS Disord. 2014;16(3). doi: 10.4088/PCC.13r01600.
  2. Subcommittee on Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder; Steering Committee on Quality Improvement and Management. ADHD: clinical practice guideline for the diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents. Pediatrics. 2011;128(5):1007-1022.
  3. Pliszka S; AACAP Work Group on Quality Issues. Practice parameter for the assessment and treatment of children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2007:46(7):894-921.
  4. Murphy K. Psychosocial treatments for ADHD in teens and adults: a practice-friendly review. J Clin Psychol. 2005;61(5):607-619.
  5. American Psychiatric Association. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. In: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Association; 2013:59-65.
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